How to Dispose of Solar Panels and How to Recycle Solar Panels?

How to Dispose of Solar Panels and How to Recycle Solar Panels? Power is one of the daily necessities that need to be fulfilled no matter what. However, the natural resources that are helping us produce power are limited. This is exactly why we need replacements for our traditional power-producing resources. You can visit the construction and working of solar thermal power plant to know the generation process.

When talking about resources that help us produce enough power. Solar panels are one of the first options to consider.

Solar energy is one of the fastest-growing energy sources in the US. It is a small yet efficient technique to reduce fossil fuel usage. See how to improve solar panel efficiency and work manually to slightly improve solar cell efficiency.

Solar panels usually come with a lifespan of 25 years or more. Once they have crossed their maximum lifespan, they can be recycled in order to reduce waste.

In the upcoming sections, we will be discussing how solar cells are recycled.

So, bear with us till the end.

Factors that are closely related to the solar panel Recycling Process

Before we directly move into how solar panels can be recycled, let’s have a look at the factors that are associated with them.

The journey of solar panels started back in the late 80s by a young physicist Charles Fritts. However, solar panels have gained huge popularity and have come to use over the past decade.

According to research, the average anticipated lifespan for solar panels that have been installed in the last decade will be 25 years or so.

solar panel recycle

Depending on the material that has been used in the production of solar panels also plays a huge role in recycling them.

The two most common types of solar cells are thin-film solar panels and silicon solar panels.

Let’s have a brief discussion on the types of solar cells:

Silicon solar panel

The first type of solar panel is the silicon solar panel. They can also be called mono and poly-crystalline solar panels.

Almost 95% of the solar panels that are sold currently are crystalline-silicon solar panels. This particular type of solar panel contains solar cells that are manufactured from silicon structures.

Crystalline solar panels come with a small number of valuable metals embedded with the panel. These metals could be anything like silver and copper.

The great part about these solar cells is they are both efficient and cost-effective. Apart from that, they also have a higher lifespan.

These types of solar panels usually have a lifetime of 25 years or so.

Thin-Film solar panel

Next comes the thin-film solar panels. These types of panels usually have thin layers of semiconductor materials. The most common material found is cadmium telluride or copper indium gallium dieselize.

These metals are layered on supporting materials like glass, plastic, or metal. Thin-film solar panels require a much low-costing than other types of solar panels.

However, their lifetime and efficiency aren’t as high as silicon solar panels. You can visit how to calculate solar panel efficiency to find your panel efficiency before buying them.

How to recycle solar panels?

How are solar cells recycled? Recycling solar cells or solar module recycling involves separating the various components of the cell and reusing or processing them for other applications. Researchers are exploring new ways to popularize recycling so that the majority of a solar panel’s components can be economically recovered in this young and expanding industry. Although there are parts of this recycling process in the United States, it is not yet taking place on a large scale.

Glass, metals, and electronics recycling are well-established industries that can solar cell recycling and other parts of solar power systems. The frame and junction box are typically removed before engaging in these procedures, which typically involve crushing, shredding, and milling.

Glass, aluminum, and copper may be recovered during these processes, while the other material including the silicon solar cell may be burned over time.

As silicon solar panels are usually made of plastic, glass, and aluminum, they can be recycled in bulk amounts. However, they require pretty advanced machinery to separate these components and recycle them.

The main process includes the steps mentioned below:

The first step is to remove the aluminum around the panel. The frame is 100% reusable and can be reused easily.

Next comes separating the glass along a conveyor belt. This glass part is around 95% reusable.

The rest happens under a thermal process. The thermal procedure occurs at less than 500 degrees Celsius. Small plastic components in the cells get separated easily and allow evaporation.

Last but not least, the silicon wafers are etched away and smelt so that they can be turned into reusable slabs. Anyhow, they are only 85% reusable.

Additionally, when it comes to recycling solar cells, it might seem simple to push the problem down the road. Since these solar panels frequently outlast their 25-year lifespan and prevent greenhouse gas emissions.

The long-term success of this solar industry, however, depends on the ability to successfully recover the raw materials and recycle them.

How to dispose of solar panels?

What happens when you can no longer recycle a solar panel? How are old solar panels disposed of? Old solar panel disposal means the PV cell duration is 25 to 30 years after the solar panel needs to be replaced. Before we talk about solar panel waste disposal, we will learn about a few factors that are associated with solar panel disposal.

Are solar panel waste considered hazardous to the environment?

The last remains of the solar panel that can no longer be recycled are the part that is disposed of. Proper disposal of solar panels is a must in order to keep the environment safe.

A study that was performed on the environmental impacts of recycling crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride solar panels by Thomas et al.2020, shows that the recycling phase of C-Si PVs will contribute 15 -35% more impacts to cradle-to-gate-to-to-gate environmental impacts.

Among those of C -Si PVs which implies the impact of recycling on the entire life cycle impacts of C-Si PVs vary 15 -25% depending on chosen recycling technique.

The contribution of the recycling phase to the overall life cycle of CdTe panels is minor. Less is more when it comes to the environment.

This will lessen the cost of remanufacturing significantly while reducing the environmental impacts. Glass is the most effective material in Cadmium Telluride panels because it occupies approximately 94% of the CdTe panel.

And cadmium as well as tellurium is more expensive because they are rare earth metals. As a result, both disposing and recycling methods should prioritize recovering these materials in a way that is safe for the environment.

So, how does proper disposal of solar panels work?

Most solar panels are recycled and reused in the manufacturing of new solar cells. However, in some cases, it is no longer possible to recycle the waste parts. Once the panels have reached that stage, they are considered waste remains.

These waste remains are either burnt or thrown away. They occasionally end up in landfills, which is regrettable. Experts advise that they must be discarded and they should be treated as hazardous or electronic waste.

How to make a solar panel out of recycled materials? 

Manufacturing a solar panel or solar panel recycling technology is simpler than it sounds.

You can follow the below-given steps to make a solar panel out of recycled material:


Preparing a Template and Frame

First things first, the first step is to create a template. Creating a template makes your task simpler. Therefore, using a spare piece of plywood and a regular piece of cardboard a template can be made.

Once the template has been made, it’s time for the frame. Cut the spare pieces of plywood and dust them down well. After you are done making the frame it is time to paint the frame.

For completely sealing the frame, it is better to apply two coats. Additionally, it is a great choice to use a paint that is water resistant.


Putting the Solar Cells Together

Watching a video would be the most effective way to learn how to put solar cells together. In a nutshell, the positive side of a solar cell is on the bottom, and the negative side is on the top.

You can use tabbing wire along with a soldering iron to connect the solar cells together.


Creating Holes for Connection and Gluing Down the Solar Cells

Once you are done creating and painting the frame, go ahead and drill holes at the end of the frames so that the positive and negative connections can run out.

Next comes the part where you glue down the solar cells on the frame.


Soldering the Bus Wires and Checking Electric Side

After the wires have been placed and some connections are made, it is time to solder them. Next comes the electrical part. For this, you will need a charge controller, a deep-cycle battery, and an inverter.

Hooking all this equipment together is fairly easy. Yet, if required, take help from an expert.


Installing a Junction Box

The junction box includes a blocking diode, which prevents current backflow when the solar panel is connected to a battery. Most charge controllers already prevent current backflow, but if yours does not, you will need to install a blocking diode on the solar panel.

It is best to install the blocking diode on the outside of the panel so that it can be easily replaced if anything happens to it.

How to dispose of old solar panels?

The disposal of old solar panels is not complicated at all. By following the solar panel disposal regulations you can easily dispose of the remains after the recycling process is done.

This process involves crushing, shredding, milling, and burning. Through the process, solid materials like glass, copper, and aluminum are recovered. Other than that, the rest of the materials, including silicon solar cells are also considered waste.

How much does it cost to recycle solar panels?

It can cost somewhere between $15-$45.

Now that you have a clear concept of how solar panels work. Let us have a look at how much it can cost to recycle a solar panel.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimates that recycling solar panels in the US can cost $15–45. On the other hand, recycling in the EU costs $0.75 per panel due to laws requiring manufacturers to contribute to a fund that supports recycling.

The cost and benefit of recycling and reusing their PV panels also need to be made clearer to US consumers by manufacturers. The cost-benefit analysis of various end-of-life options should be accessible to manufacturers and secondary consumers.

The federal government also has a part to play in it. It could be to spend money on research to improve the most efficient recycling method for managing solar panels.

Finally, and most importantly, solar panels must be recycled ethically, sustainably, and both domestically and internationally. However, do you know the average cost of solar panels for 2000 sq ft home? We think you must know it before PV cell installation.

How much does it cost to dispose of solar panels?

Solar waste disposal in landfills only costs $1–5. However, the recycling process costs double that.

As a result, the infrastructure for recycling has been left behind by the boom in solar energy production. To give you an idea, First Solar is the only American panel manufacturer that we are aware of that has an active recycling program that only applies to the company’s own products, with an annual global capacity of two million panels.

One panel can be recycled for between $20 and $30 with the capacity in place. That same panel would only cost $1 to $2 to dispose of in a landfill. Visit how much money solar panels save to make sure your pricing concept.

Additionally, because solar panels contain trace amounts of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, and other contaminants, some governments may classify them as hazardous waste. This classification entails a number of pricey limitations, such as the need to only transport hazardous waste during specific hours and along specific routes.

But first and foremost, the necessary solar panel recycling capacity needs to be built, as part of an extensive end-of-life infrastructure. That also includes removal, transportation, and sufficient storage facilities for solar waste.

There might not be enough time for businesses to complete this on their own, even if the most optimistic of our early-replacement forecasts prove correct. Government subsidies are most likely the only means of rapidly strengthening capacity commensurate to the size of the approaching waste problem.


Each of us wants the most environmentally friendly, ethically sourced solar panels installed on our homes and in our neighborhoods. Governments, corporations, and consumers are all becoming more dedicated to achieving that objective. As we shift to a clean energy future, supply chain and end-of-life issues also present possibilities to enhance circular innovation and preservation. We have discussed recycling photovoltaic panels but PV panel recycling relies on some crucial factors that we have discussed above.

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