Explain Carnot Cycle Thermodynamics Process You Should Know It

What is Carnot heat engine?

The Carnot cycle is a type of thermodynamic cycle. The Carnot engine is a heat engine that s used to operate the Carnot cycle. Indeed Carnot heat engine was developed by Nicolas Sadi in 1924 and it becomes popular to drive the heat engine. Indeed Carnot heat engine is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle process. It makes sure the highest possible efficiency that heat is converted into work by the heat engine. However, let’s explain Carnot cycle thermodynamics process so that you should know it.

Carnot cycle thermodynamics process

The Carnot Cycle thermodynamics process was established by the French Physicist who is identified as Sadi Carnot. It has been recognized as the perfect cycle which performs as the substructure of the second law of thermodynamics. The Carnot Cycle leads toward the concept of reversibility.


To maintain and achieve a steady supply of work, the themed working substance is performing well to operate better in quasistatic can be identified as the Carnot Cycle. There are four main Carnot cycle thermodynamics processes throughout the cycle incorporates well, such as

Isothermal Expansion

At first, the cylinder has been placed on the source to receive the temperature T1 of the source. It authorizes to move within the expansion of quasi-static. The temperature might fall when the gas lengthens. The heat proceeds within the cylinder along the conducting base which has been associated with the source. As a consequence, the gas goes through slow isothermal expansion within a constant temperature of T1.

During Isothermal Expansion, when the working substance proceeds through the initial state A ( P1, V2, T2) into state B (P2, V2, T2) within a steady temperature T1 through AB. Through this method, the substance captivates the heat Q1 and performs work W1 delineated by

Q1= W1= ∫V1^V2 PdV=RT1Log (e V2/(V1 ) = area ABGEA

Adiabatic Expansion

The cylinder has been withdrawn from the source and later on it had been kept to the insulation stand. The gas has been authorized to sustain the slow adiabatic expansion, completing the external work within the external work at the charge of its internal energy till the temperature moves downward, it remains the same within the sink.

This operation has been delineated through the Adiabatic BC, which begins from state B (P2, V2, T2) into state C (P3, V3, T2). In this procedure, no transfer of heat has been found, the temperature of the substance decreases to T2 and it performs some external work W2, given by,

W2 = ∫_V2^V3 P.dV=K∫_V2^V3 dV/V^γ

Since, during the process of adiabatic,

(P V^γ = constant = K)

= (KV(3^(1-γ))- P(2V_2 ) )/(1-γ)

=  (P_3 V_3-P_2 V_2)/(1-γ) (P2〖V2〗^γ=P3〖V3〗^γ=K)

= 〖RT〗_(2-〖RT〗_1 )/(1-γ)

=  (R(T1-T2))/(γ-1) = Area BCHGB

= 4.16

Isothermal Compression

Presently, the cylinder is eliminated from the insulating stand and kept over the sink within temperature T2. The pistons have gradually proceeded towards the inside which makes sure that the work has been completed within the gas. The temperature might improve with the help of the heat that has been produced by the compression and the conducting base of the cylinders is connected to the sink, the generated heat proceeds to the sink, and the temperature of the gas stay within the T2. The gas has experienced isothermal compression within a steady temperature T2 and it releases the heat into the sink.

The performance is delineated through the Isothermal CD which begins from the state (P3, T3, V2) into the state D (P4, V4, T2). In this method, the substance discards the heat Q2 into the sink T2 and the W3 is accomplished by the substance which has been specified by

Q2 = W3 = ∫_V5^V4〖PdV= 〖RT〗_2 〗 〖Log〗_e V4/V3

………. (4.17)

= -〖RT〗_2 〖Log〗_e V4/V3 = area CHFDC

(the negative sign suggests that the work is completed within the working substance)

Adiabatic Compression

Presently, the cylinder has been separated from the sink and once again kept in the insulating stand. The piston gradually proceeded inwards so that the gas filled with adiabatic compression can go back to the authentic condition, for instance, the state A (P1, V1, T1) that accomplished the one full cycle.

This performance was delineated with the help of adiabatic DA which begins from the state D (P4, V4, and T2) into the final state A (P1, V1, T1). In this procedure, the works W4 have been completed over a substance and is specified by,

W4 = ∫_V2^V1〖P.dV〗

= (R(T1-T2))/(γ-1) = area DFEAD

……. (4.18)

(The negative sign designates the work is completed by the working substance. Whereas W2 and W4 are inconsistent and equivalent, and then they cancel one another.)

Does Carnot cycle reversible?

We know that the Carnot cycle is a pure thermodynamic cycle and it is a fully reversible cycle there is no doubt about it. We also believe that the thermodynamic cycle mainly consists of four reversible processes, such as  

  • Reversible isothermal expansion
  • Reversible isothermal compression
  • Reversible adiabatic expansion  
  • Reversible adiabatic compression

Can you say, what is the Carnot Cycle working fluid?

Yes, Carnot cycle working fluid is an ideal gas. It means ideal gas is used as the Carnot cycle working fluid. Indeed working fluid means liquid or gas that is used to convert heat into work. This fluid is also called heat transfer fluid or coolant fluid.

Final thought

The Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle and it has better efficiency and efficiency and is a good way to convert heat energy into work, let’s see the Carnot engine efficiency derivation formula. However, we know the Carnot cycle is a type of thermodynamic cycle that is used more for power conversion. We have shown the Carnot cycle thermodynamics process these are the main processes of thermodynamics and all the reversible processes are slow so that machines can work fast. So, stay with openread and get creative things.

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