Automation and Control Systems
What is automation System?
The automation system is the controlling process. Whereas electrical or electromechanical machines are equipped and are controlled by the logical programming application this is called automation. The automation system is widely used in industrial controlling applications to reduce labor costs, save production places, increase productivity, and other advantages. A Control system means controlling the machinery. Industrial automation and control systems by using PLC, HMI, VFD, and Servodrive mean controlling the machinery by using logical controlling programming. The control system is the main part of the industry which is used to control the boiler, powerhouse, and others.
Industrial automatic control systems
Industrial automatic control systems are made of a bunch of electrical types of equipment like PLC, HMI, controlled machinery, and others. Automatic industrial control systems are the collective terms of industrial controlling and this control system is used to easily control the industrial machinery. Basically, industrial control system means PLC, HMI, VFD, and Servo drive. PLC is the Programmable Logic Controller. PLC is the controlling device most of the manufacturing companies are using PLC for their industrial control system.
PLC is being most popular for industrial controlling applications due to its easy programming, easy controlling, small device, longer life, low cost, and other features. HMI is the Human Machine Interface. It is largely used in industrial controlling applications. HMI is a display that is used to monitor load or controlled machinery. Basically, HMI is connected to the PLC. There are five logical programming languages such as
- Ladder Diagram (LD).
- Function Block Diagram (FBD).
- Instruction List (IL).
- Structured Text (ST).
- Sequential Function Chart (SFC).
PLC understands all of the logical programming languages. The Ladder Diagram or Ladder Logic programming language is the most common and easy programming language. For this reason, most of the people in the world are using the Ladder programming language. Other Automation and control systems are the Modbus communication system.
Modbus is the data communication protocol that was developed by the Modicon Company in 1979. Basically, the Modbus communication protocol is used for transmitting data or information between electrical or electronic devices. Basically, Programmable Logic Controller, Human Machine Interface, PC, and some other electrical or electronic devices are used for Modbus, and communication protocol RS-485 or RS-232 are used that communicates by transmitting with ASCII characters.
A shielded and twisted pair cable is used for the Modbus communication system. It is because CAT5 or CAR6 twisted-pair cable provides a good economical solution for field wiring, and the data transfer ratio is very high. For this reason, a shielded and twisted pair cable is used for the Modbus communication system.
Building management system
A building management system or building automation system is a computer-based control system. The building automation system is installed in the building that monitors and controls the electrical and mechanical components like an exhaust fan, lighting, ventilation, fire system, electricity supply system, security system, and others. The aim of the business management system provides certainty of the safety of the operation facility. The major subsystem controlled by the business management system such as
- HVAC System. The duct pressure, duct temperature, and duct humidity, as well as exhaust temperature, are connected to the building management system, and if its value exceeds the rated limits or statutory limit, an alarm is generated.
- You can use a sprinkler System (for fire safety).
- The building management system can monitor the consumed electrical power and main electrical switches.
Industrial automation system
An industrial automation system is used to automate industrial pieces of machinery such as production lines, boilers, conveyor lines, and others. PLC and HMI are the main components of the industrial automation system. PLC and HMI carry the controlling program but PLC and HMI work based on the program. There are several types of industrial automation systems such as
- Flexible machine systems.
- Computer-aided process planning.
- Computer-supported design and manufacturing.
- Computerized production and scheduling control.
- Computer numerical control machine tools.
- Automated material handling systems, like robots.
- Automatic storage and retrieval systems.
Most of the companies are using automation systems such as manufacturing companies, oil and gas, steel mills, paper mills, making robots, and others. The demand for industrial automation is increasing day by day due to its greater advantages.
Advantages and disadvantages of industrial automation system
To get more benefits people are making industrial automation systems. The industrial automation system is increasing day by day. Old industries are also becoming automated due to the greater automation advantages. Everything has merits and demerits. The advantage of the industrial automation system is given below.
- More consistent production due to automation.
- Greater production volume.
- Increase repeatability.
- Precision and accuracy. It means exact product design and low wastage of the materials.
- Maintain product quality and highly increased product quality.
- An automation system makes better working conditions.
- An industrial automation system has no operating cost (low operating cost).
- A small place is required for big controlling operation.
Disadvantages of industrial automation
Industrial automation is the use of control systems such as computers or robots and the replacement of a person using information technology to operate various processes and equipment in an industry. This is the second step beyond mechanization in industrialization opportunities.
- Automation system creates more pollution.
- Less versatility.
- A comparatively large initial statement is required.
- Industrial automation systems increase unemployment.
- Required big investment for small plants.
Importance of Industrial Automation
Automation is an important term for modern industrialization. Basically, an automation system means an industrial controlling system like PLC, HMI, VFD, servo drive, etc. It means whenever we control the industrial machine by using a controlling device or without human touch which is called industrial automation or factory automation. Industrial automation system or factory automation is being more popular rapidly. Because there are more advantages to the factory automation or industrial automation
- Automation reduces human effort, labor quantity, and labor cost.
- The automation system is reduced product damage and also reduces product wastage.
- Productivity is increased for a long period and increases work efficiency.
- Though industrial automation cost is high it is a sustainable controlling process, and running cost is very low.
- The automation system saves money because the production process is regular, has low wastage, and has low maintenance costs.
Due to its greater benefits, most industrialists are investing more money to change their controlling system.
Which device is required for Industrial Automation?
Industrial automation device means that those devices are used to control industrial machinery. In this case, we can consider PLC, HMI, VFD (Viable Frequency Drive), etc. PLC is the controlling device whereas the controlling program is set to the PLC and PLC works based on the program. HMI is the controlling display, you can monitor your machine by using HMI.
On the other hand, VFD is an essential device for the industrial controlling system. VFD is used to control the motor speed, and PLC, HMI, and VFD are used for the Modbus system to run any machine. There are many PLC, HMI, and VFD brands in the world like Siemens, Mitsubishi, Delta, Panasonic, ABB, Allen Bradley, and others. These are the most reputed automation device manufacturer company in the entire universe.
Such automation companies manufacture the controlling devices based on modern automation technology. They are also tirelessly trying to manufacture their products compare with the updated technology. Basically, industrial control systems have many benefits that we refer to above, and it is becoming widespread due to their merits and easy controlling systems.
What is PLC Block Diagram?
A programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is the controlling device. It is true that we understand automation means PLC controlling system. There are five basic programming languages for automation control systems. On the other hand, the Programmable Logic Controller has four main units such as CPU, Input, Output, and power supply. There is also some other programming instruction that is used to execute the PLC program. The PLC processor consists of RAM, ROM, and user memory, but the Central Processing Unit controls the monitor and oversees all operations within the Programming Logic Controller.
Types of PLC Programming Language
There are five types of PLC programming language. But Ladder logic diagram is one of the most popular PLC programming languages. Because it is easy to program and its function is also easy. For this reason, most people use ladder diagrams for PLC programming. The five PLC programming language is given below:
- Structured Text (ST)
- Instruction List (IL)
- Ladder Diagram (LD)
- Sequential Function Charts (SFC)
- Function Block Diagram (FBD)
What is SCADA/What is the Full Form of SCADA?
SCADA stand for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. Supervisory control and data acquisition system are the hardware and software elements. SCADA system is widely used to control and monitor industrial applications. SCADA system can process remotely and locally. This controlling system takes information and sends a command to the control line. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) both are used for controlling purposes. But there are some differences between them.
Difference between PLC and SCADA
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) both are used for controlling purposes. But there is some difference between PLC and SCADA, such as
- SCADA is software but it is not hardware.
- SCADA is used to monitor the machinery and it is also called monitor software.
- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) creates data collection record and help to control hardware elements.
- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) can be connected to the HMI or graphical user interface and can connect to the computer to give a whole overview of the entire project.
- The programmable Logic Controller is the physical hardware.
- PLC is able to monitor one element within the system.
- Most of the time PLC requires SCADA to control its operation.
- PLC can be used for small operations at a low cost.